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STS-l frame: line overhead

| | Thursday, April 30, 2009

STS-l frame: line overhead

Line parity byte (B2). Byte B2 is for bit interleaved parity. It is for error checking of the frame over a line (between two multiplexers). In an STS-n frame, B2 is calculated for all bytes in the previous STS-1 frame and inserted at the B2 byte for that frame. In other words, in a STS-3 frame, there are three B2 bytes, each calculated for one STS-1 frame. Contrast this byte with B 1 in the section overhead.

Data communication channel bytes (D4 to D12). The line overhead D bytes (D4 to D12) in consecutive frames form a 576-kbps channel that provides the same service as the D l-D3 bytes (OA&M), but at the line rather than the section level (between multiplexers).

Order wire byte (E2). The E2 bytes in consecutive frames form a 64-kbps channel that provides the same functions as the E1 order wire byte, but at the line level.

Pointer bytes (HI, H2, and H3). Bytes H1, H2, and H3 are pointers. The first two bytes are used to show the offset of the SPE in the frame; the third is used for justification. We show the use of these bytes later.

Automatic protection switching bytes (K1 and K2). The K1 and K2 bytes in consecutive frames form a 128-kbps channel used for automatic detection of problems in line-terminating equipment.

Growth bytes (Z1 and Z2). The Z1 and Z2 bytes are reserved for future use.

Synchronous Payload Envelope

The synchronous payload envelope (SPE) contains the user data and the overhead related to the user data (path overhead). One SPE does not necessarily fit it into one STS- 1 frame; it may be split between two frames, as we will see shortly. This means that the path overhead, the leftmost column of an SPE, does not necessarily align with the section or line overhead. The path overhead must be added first to the user data to create an SPE, and then an SPE can be inserted into one or two frames. Path overhead consists of 9 bytes.

Path parity byte (B3). Byte B3 is for bit interleaved parity, like bytes B1 and B2, but calculated over SPE bits. It is actually calculated over the previous SPE in the stream.

Path signal label byte (C2). Byte C2 is the path identification byte. It is used to identify different protocols used at higher levels (such as IP or ATM) whose data are being carried in the SPE.

Path user channel byte (F2). The F2 bytes in consecutive frames, like the F1 bytes, form a 64-kbps channel that is reserved for user needs, but at the path level.

Path status byte (G1). Byte G1 is sent by the receiver to communicate its status to the sender. It is sent on the reverse channel when the communication is duplex. We will see its use in the linear or ring networks later in the chapten

Multiframe indicator (H4). Byte H4 is the multiframe indicator. It indicates payloads that cannot fit into a single frame. For example, virtual tributaries can be combined to form a frame that is larger than an SPE frame and need to be divided into different frames. Virtual tributaries are discussed in the next section. Path trace byte (J1). The J1 bytes in consecutive frames form a 64-kbps channel used for tracking the path. The J1 byte sends a continuous 64-byte string to verify the connection. The choice of the string is left to the application program. The receiver compares each pattern with the previous one to ensure nothing is wrong with the communication at the path layer.

Growth bytes (Z3, Z4, and Z5). Bytes Z3, Z4, and Z5 are reserved for future use.

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