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| | Tuesday, April 28, 2009


The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a European standard that was developed to provide a common second-generation technology for all Europe. The aim was to replace a number of incompatible first-generation technologies. Bands GSM uses two bands for duplex communication. Each band is 25 MHz in width, shifted toward 900 MHz, Each band is divided into 124 channels of 200 kHz separated by guard bands.

Each voice channel is digitized and compressed to a 13-kbps digital signal. Each slot carries 156.25 bits. Eight slots share a frame (TDMA). Twenty-six frames also share a multiframe (TDMA). We can calculate the bit rate of each channel as follows:

Channel datarat = (i/120 ms) x 26 X 8 X 156.25 = 270.8 kbps

Each 270.8-kbps digital channel modulates a carrier using GMSK (a form of FSK used mainly in European systems); the result is a 200-kHz analog signal. Finally 124 analog channels of 200 kHz are combined using FDMA. The result is a 25-MHz band. Figure 16.9 shows the user data and overhead in a multiframe. The reader may have noticed the large amount of overhead in TDMA. The user data are only 65 bits per slot. The system adds extra bits for error correction to make it 114 bits per slot. To this, control bits are added to bring it up to 156.25 bits per slot. Eight slots are encapsulated in a frame. Twenty-four traffic frames and two additional control frames make a multiframe. A multiframe has a duration of 120 ms. However, the architecture does define superframes and hyperframes that do not add any overhead; we will not discuss them here.

Reuse Factor Because of the complex error correction mechanism, GSM allows a reuse factor as low as 3.


One of the dominant second-generation standards in North America is Interim Standard 95 (IS-95). It is based on CDMA and DSSS. Bands and Channels IS-95 uses two bands for duplex communication. The bands can be the traditional ISM 800-MHz band or the ISM 1900-MHz band. Each band is divided into 20 channels of 1.228 MHz separated by guard bands. Each service provider is allotted 10 channels. IS-95 can be used in parallel with AMPS. Each IS-95 channel is equivalent to 41 AMPS channels (41 x 30 kHz = 1.23 MHz). Synchronization All base channels need to be synchronized to use CDMA. To provide synchronization, bases use the services of GPS (Global Positioning System), a satellite system that we discuss in the next section. Forward Transmission IS-95 has two different transmission techniques: one for use in the forward (base to mobile) direction and another for use in the reverse (mobile to base) direction. In the forward direction, communications between the base and all mobiles are synchronized; the base sends synchronized data to all mobiles. Each voice channel is digitized, producing data at a basic rate of 9.6 kbps. After adding error-correcting and repeating bits, and interleaving, the result is a signal of 19.2 ksps (kilosignals per second). This output is now scrambled using a 19.2-ksps signal. The scrambling signal is produced from a long code generator that uses the electronic serial number (ESN) of the mobile station and generates 242 pseudorandom chips, each chip having 42 bits. Note that the chips are generated pseudorandomly, not randomly, because the pattern repeats itself. The output of the long code generator is fed to a decimator, which chooses 1 bit out of 64 bits. The output of the decimator is used for scrambling. The scrambling is used to create privacy; the ESN is unique for each station.

The result of the scrambler is combined using CDMA. For each traffic channel, one Walsh 64 x 64 row chip is selected. The result is a signal of 1.228 Mcps (megachips per second).

19.2 ksps x 64 cps = 1.228 Mcps

The signal is fed into a QPSK modulator to produce a signal of 1.228 MHz. The resulting bandwidth is shifted appropriately, using FDMA. An analog channel creates64 digital channels, of which 55 channels are traffic channels (carrying digitized voice). Nine channels are used for control and synchronization:

##Channel 0 is a pilot channel. This channel sends a continuous stream of 1 s to mobile stations. The stream provides bit synchronization, serves as a phase reference for demodulation, and allows the mobile station to compare the signal strength of neighboring bases for handoff decisions.

##Channel 32 gives information about the system to the mobile station.

##Channels 1 to 7 are used for paging, to send messages to one or more mobile stations.

## Channels 8 to 31 and 33 to 63 are traffic channels carrying digitized voice from the base station to the corresponding mobile station.

Reverse Transmission The use of CDMA in the forward direction is possible because the pilot channel sends a continuous sequence of ls to synchronize transmission. The synchronization is not used in the reverse direction because we need an entity to do that, which is not feasible. Instead of CDMA, the reverse channels use DSSS (direct sequence spread spectrum), which we discussed in Chapter 8. Figure 16.11 shows a simplified diagram for reverse transmission.

Each voice channel is digitized, producing data at a rate of 9.6 kbps. However, after adding error-correcting and repeating bits, plus interleaving, the result is a signal of 28.8 ksps. The output is now passed through a 6/64 symbol modulaton The symbols are divided into six-symbol chunks, and each chunk is interpreted as a binary number (from 0 to 63). The binary number is used as the index to a 64 x 64 Walsh matrix for selection of a row of chips. Note that this procedure is not CDMA; each bit is not multiplied by the chips in a row. Each six-symbol chunk is replaced by a 64-chip code. This is done to provide a kind of orthogonality; it differentiates the streams of chips from the different mobile stations. The result creates a signal of 307.2 kbps or(28.8/6) x 64.Spreading is the next step; each chip is spread into 4. Again the ESN of the mobilestation creates a long code of 42 bits at a rate of 1.228 Mbps, which is 4 times 307.2. After spreading, each signal is modulated using QPSK, which is slightly different from the one used in the forward direction; we do not go into details here. Note that there is no multiple-access mechanism here; all reverse channels send their analog signal into the air, but the correct chips will be received by the base station due to spreading.

Although we can create 242 - 1 digital channels in the reverse direction (because of the long code generator), normally 94 channels are used; 62 are traffic channels, and 32 are channels used to gain access to the base station.

Two Data Rate Sets IS-95 defines two data rate sets, with four different rates in each set. The first set defines 9600, 4800, 2400, and 1200 bps. If, for example, the selected rate is 1200 bps, each bit is repeated 8 times to provide a rate of 9600 bps. The second set defines 14,400, 7200, 3600, and 1800 bps. This is possible by reducing the number of bits used for error correction. The bit rates in a set are related to the activity of the channel. If the channel is silent, only 1200 bits can be transferred, which improves the spreading by repeating each bit 8 times. Frequency-Reuse Factor In an IS-95 system, the frequency-reuse factor is normally 1 because the interference from neighboring cells cannot affect CDMA or DSSS transmission.

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